What you need to know before feeding a dog
First of all, it is very important to know that a dog needs a complete and balanced diet.
Therefore, not all the foods you see in the infographic below should be given as the main ingredients of his diet.
There is a reason why there is a special dog food industry. Dog food, for example, is made from many ingredients (meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, cereals) and provides a complete and balanced diet.
Most of the items you see in our infographics (and which come under the category of authorized foods) should be given from time to time as a treat, making sure your dog has a complete diet on the side.
In addition, many foods are not suitable for our dogs. It may be tempting to give them a piece of food or cut a few pieces of fruit so that they too can enjoy it, but it is also very important to understand that dogs are different from humans and that they cannot digest certain foods in the way that we do.
So, there are some things that we eat regularly and with pleasure that can be very toxic for our dogs. Therefore, it is important to be well informed before giving your dog any new food.
Here is an infographic that will give you an overview of the foods your dog can and cannot eat. You will find a detailed explanation of each food in the charts in this article.
We have prepared four tables detailing what you see on the above infographic: what your dog can eat, what he could eat in moderation, what is not recommended, and what should not be fed to your dog.
Foods your dog CAN eat
Remember that although these foods are safe to feed your dog, they shouldn’t be fed in abundance.
|Apples||Always remove the seeds before giving your dog apple. Cut it into pieces before feeding. It is a fruit with few calories, inexpensive, healthy, and rich in vitamins and antioxidants.|
|Asparagus||Do not give it raw, cut the base into small pieces. Do not cook with butter or oil (boil it in water).|
|Bananas||Bananas are rich in potassium, vitamin B6 and vitamin C. However, they do also contain lots of sugar.|
|Blueberries||Rich in vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, low in calories, and overall very good for a dog’s health.|
|Carrot||Very healthy, with few calories and lots of fiber, antioxidants, and vitamin A.|
|Clementine||This fruit is not toxic but some dogs may be reluctant to eat it because it is a highly acidic food. If given in large quantities, clementines may cause some digestive disorders. Be sure to wash the fruit thoroughly, removing the stem, leaves, and skin.|
|Coconut||Give only the part with white coconut. It is healthy and non-toxic for dogs.|
|Cooked fish||Fish is an excellent source of protein and omega 3. Do not give it raw (risk of salmonellosis) and always remove the bones (to prevent choking).|
|Cucumber||Low in calories and hydrating as it contains a lot of water. Cut into pieces.|
|Eggs||Never give raw eggs to a dog, always cook them (without oil or butter). They have a high protein content, are healthy, and are perfectly adapted to a dog’s diet.|
|Kiwi||Kiwi is a nutrient-rich fruit that your dog will probably enjoy. Cut it into small pieces and see how he reacts when he eats it. Don’t give him the skin.|
|Mango||Mangoes are rich in vitamins and a good source of fiber. Do not give him the skin or pit. Avoid giving him too much of it and cut it into pieces.|
|Melon||Rich in vitamin C, melon is an excellent antioxidant for your pet. This fruit fights against oxidative stress and cellular aging.|
|Peppers||Rich in nutrients and have many other benefits for a dog’s health. Red peppers are more nutritious than other colours of pepper. Some dogs may be allergic to them.|
|Peas||Good source of vitamins, minerals, and vegetable proteins. Never give canned peas because they have a high sodium content which is bad for dogs.|
|Poultry||Poultry is a good source of protein and is very good for dogs. Be careful, you must always cook it (never give it raw, risk of salmonellosis) and remove the bones to prevent choking.|
|Pumpkin||Rich in fiber, vitamins, potassium, and iron. Helps a dog to maintain healthy digestion.|
|Radish||Non-toxic to dogs but other vegetables are often more beneficial. The radish lacks essential nutrients.|
|Salmon||Properly prepared, salmon is not only safe for dogs but is also recommended because it is rich in nutrients that are essential to their health. However, never feed your dog raw salmon as this fish often contains a parasite (Neorickettsia helminthoeca) that can cause salmon poisoning disease (SPD).|
|Spinach||Rich in fiber, vitamins, iron, calcium, and protein. Do not give it to a dog suffering from kidney problems and preferably cook it (plain, without butter or oil).|
|Strawberry||Do not give strawberries if they are canned or in syrup. It is a healthy fruit, low in calories, that contains antioxidants, lots of fiber, and vitamin C. Wash well before feeding and give in small pieces.|
|Sweet potatoes||Sweet potatoes are a healthy, natural, nutrient-rich, low-calorie option. Never feed them raw.|
|Tomatoes||As long as they are ripe and you don’t feed the stem or leaves, your dog can eat tomatoes. Solanine is an alkaloid that is toxic to dogs and is found in high quantities in the stem, leaves, and in unripe green fruit.|
|Tuna||In small quantities and on an occasional basis, tuna is likely to be enjoyed by your dog and can be given safely. However, tuna has a high mercury content and shouldn’t be fed on a regular basis or in large quantities.|
What your dog can eat in moderation (be careful!)
|Apricot||If you give an apricot to your dog, make sure that he does not eat the pit, the leaves, or the stem. Cut it into pieces before you give it. Apricots are rich in fiber, potassium, and beta carotene but must be given in moderation.|
|Bacon||This food should only be fed occasionally and in small quantities. Bacon is very fatty and can cause pancreatitis if a dog eats too much of it.|
|Bread||Small amounts of bread are not toxic to dogs, but feeding your dog bread is not recommended as it is difficult for them to digest. If his diet is otherwise balanced, giving him a piece of bread from time to time won’t hurt him. However, never give him raw dough if you’re making bread at home.|
|Broccoli||A dog can eat raw or cooked broccoli without any seasoning or oils. It should always be given in small amounts otherwise it can cause gastric irritation. It is a vegetable rich in fiber, vitamin C, and is also low in fat.|
|Cheese||Cheese can be a good choice of training treat for your dog. However, it should only be given in moderation as it is high in fat and dogs can be intolerant to the lactose it contains. Blue cheese should not be given to dogs as it can be dangerous and cause vomiting and diarrhea amongst other symptoms. If your dog has ingested blue cheese and you notice any worrying signs, call your vet.|
|Corn||Corn is not dangerous for dogs but should only be given in moderation. Some dogs are allergic to it.|
|Dates||They are low in fat and a good source of vitamins, fiber, calcium, iron, protein, magnesium, and potassium. However, because of their high sugar content, they must only be given in moderation. Always remove the pit.|
|Figs||They are safe for dogs and can be healthy. They contain natural sugars and fiber that are suitable for a dog’s diet. Do not give too many to prevent diarrhea.|
|Peach||Very good source of vitamins A and fiber and peaches are healthy if you cut them into small pieces and don’t give the pit. However, in large amounts they can cause diarrhea and intestinal problems in dogs.|
|Ham||It should be given in moderation, especially if it is industrial as it contains preservatives and salt. It is a high-fat food and although it contains animal protein, there are other healthier alternatives for your dog.|
|Honey||Honey should only ever be given to a dog in small quantities. It contains natural sugars, vitamins, and essential minerals but it can lead to obesity in dogs if given in abundance.|
|Lettuce||Composed of 90% water, lettuce is a low-calorie snack but can cause diarrhea if consumed in large quantities due to its high fiber content.|
|Olives||This fruit is not toxic to dogs. They should only be given in small quantities, without the pit, and without salt or any other seasoning. However, olives are not essential to a dog’s diet.|
|Oranges||They are rich in vitamin C and are safe for dogs. However, they also contain a lot of sugar and are highly acidic and so should only be given in moderation.|
|Pineapple||Pineapple contains a lot of vitamin C and other nutrients that are good for dogs. However, it is a very sweet fruit with lots of fiber and should be given in moderation and in small quantities.|
|Potatoes||Never give your dog raw or green potatoes as they contain solanine, a toxic component to dogs. The skin should never be fed. Also do not use salt, oil, or seasonings to cook them. Avoid giving potatoes to a dog with diabetes as they contain a lot of natural sugar. They can be a good source of vitamins, iron, magnesium, and other minerals but can lead to obesity in dogs if not fed in moderation.|
|Raspberry||Raspberries contain antioxidants, fiber, minerals, and vitamins. They should only ever be fed in small quantities because they contain small amounts of xylitol, a natural sugar substitute that is toxic to dogs.|
|Rice||Rice is often found in various dog kibble brands. It is easy to digest and low in fibre. Do not give your dog brown rice. However, remember that dogs are carnivorous animals and should only be fed rice in moderation.|
|Watermelon||Always remove the seeds to prevent the risk of an intestinal blockage. It is a low-calorie fruit full of nutrients including vitamins and potassium. Give only the red flesh of the watermelon to your dog, never the skin.|
What your dog should not eat
|Almonds||Almonds contain a substance that is toxic to dogs called oxalic acid. In high quantities, this can damage a dog’s kidneys.|
|Biscuits||Biscuits for people are usually full of sugar, preservatives, and non-essential ingredients that are bad for dogs. If given occasionally they do not contain chocolate or other ingredients that are toxic to dogs, they won’t harm him but we don’t recommend them. Instead, choose biscuits that are especially made for dogs.|
|Cherries||Cherries are high in fiber, antioxidants, and vitamins A, and C. However, cherries do contain tiny amounts of cyanide, a component that is toxic to dogs in large quantities.. If you give cherries to your dog, remove the pit and stems and only feed very small amounts.|
|Croissant||They’re not necessarily dangerous, but they’re not healthy. As long as you give your dog just a little bit, he will be fine. However, croissants are full of fat and ingredients that are difficult to digest and not good for the dog. So, avoid giving croissants to your dog and stick to other healthier snack options.|
|Chili peppers||Chili peppers contain capsaicin, a chemical compound that can be irritating to dogs and cause digestive problems. If your dog eats chili pepper, he could suffer from nausea, diarrhea or vomiting, which can lead to dehydration.|
|Ice cream||We do not recommend giving your dog ice cream. In addition to containing lactose that is difficult to digest, ice cream also contains sugar and sometimes xylitol, which is very toxic for dogs. Obviously, you should not give your dog chocolate ice cream (see table below). If you really want to give him something frozen, an ice cube will most likely do the trick.|
|Ketchup||Ketchup is often made with ingredients that are potentially dangerous for the dog including onions, sugar, and salt. It also contains chemicals that are not recommended. So, avoid giving it to your dog and choose healthier options such as plain tomatoes (see the first table in this article).|
|Lemon||Lemon contains citric acids that may be bad for dogs. In addition, he will most likely not enjoy it. Avoid giving lemonade, which contains a lot of sugar. Instead, choose other healthier fruit like blueberries or apples (without the seeds).|
|Pickle||Normally, pickles are preserved in liquid which is full of salt, vinegar, and different seasonings. For this reason alone, you shouldn’t give them to your dog. Pickles themselves are not unhealthy for dogs if plain but they should not be fed in large quantities. There are plenty of other healthier fruit and vegetable options to choose from.|
|Pistachios||Pistachios are fatty but not toxic to the dog. However, they could make him sick if he eats a lot of them by causing vomiting, diarrhea, and other digestive problems.|
|Salt||Salt, as with humans, should be used very sparingly. Salt is very toxic to dogs in high amounts. Thus, if you prepare your dog’s food yourself, avoid over-salting.|
|Sausage||Cooked meant is generally not bad for dogs. However, sausage is greasy and often cooked with oil and salt. You shouldn’t feed your dog sausage regularly.|
What your dog MUST NEVER eat (toxic food)
|Alcohol||It should go without saying that alcohol is toxic for dogs. It could cause salivation, vomiting, and weakness, amongst other problems. If your dog accidentally drinks it, contact your veterinarian.|
|Avocado||Avocados are very healthy and a popular ingredient. However, you should avoid giving them to your dog. This fruit contains persin, a fungicidal toxin that can cause health problems in many different animals. Even though dogs are more resistant to it than other animals, avocado is bad for them in large quantities and should be avoided. It also contains high quantities of fat which can upset your dog’s digestive system. The pit is a choking hazard and contains high levels of persin.|
|Beer||The alcohol in beer is still toxic to dogs, even though it is in lower quantities than spirits. It acts directly on your dog’s central nervous system and metabolism and can cause severe dehydration in dogs.|
|Bone||Cooked bones should never be fed to dogs. They can easily splinter and cause choking, injury from sharp fragments, or constipation. Poultry, rabbit, and other fragile bones should also be avoided.|
|Candies||There is a reason why there are “dog candies”. Human candies contain a lot of sugar and can be very harmful to your dog’s health and his teeth. Never feed your dog chocolate (see below in this chart). If your dog eats a candy by accident, don’t worry too much. However, if you notice any abnormal symptoms after he’s eaten the candy, contact your veterinarian.|
|Chocolate||Chocolate is toxic for dogs. Depending on the amount and type of chocolate ingested, the consequences for a dog’s health can be huge. The theobromine and caffeine in chocolate can speed up the heart rate and stimulate the nervous system. If your dog has eaten chocolate or shows one or more serious symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, or tremors, contact your veterinarian straight away.|
|Coffee||Caffeine is toxic to dogs. If your dog accidentally drinks it, watch for the following symptoms, which can usually be seen within 1 or 2 hours: vomiting, diarrhea, elevated heart rate, tremors. If your dog has drunk a lot of coffee, or one or more of these symptoms appear, take him to the veterinarian urgently.|
|Currants||Currants, like grapes, are very toxic to dogs. They can cause kidney damage and you should call your veterinarian straight away if your dog eats even just one of them.|
|Fat||Meat fat can cause pancreatitis in dogs. Of course, it depends on how much you give your dog, but you should not let him eat it.|
|Garlic||This food is toxic to dogs. It can cause anemia and some dogs are more sensitive to it than others, so avoid it at all costs.|
|Grapes and raisins||Grapes and raisins are very toxic for dogs. Even just a single grape could have serious consequences for your dog. This fruit can cause kidney problems and you should contact your veterinarian urgently if your dog has ingested them.|
|Macadamia nuts||These are highly poisonous to dogs. There are no breed, age or gender specificities. In other words, all dogs of any breed or age are susceptible to macadamia nut poisoning.|
|Milk||Although it may seem tempting to give your dog milk, avoid doing so. Dogs, like many animals, are lactose intolerant and milk intake can cause gastrointestinal upset. Rest assured though, if he drinks a small amount by accident, he will probably be fine.|
|Mushrooms||A dog could eat accidentally poisonous mushrooms in the wild. If your dog eats any while out walking, contact and visit the veterinarian quickly. Mushrooms bought in supermarkets are generally safe for dogs. Never feed them if they have been cooked in seasonings, oil, or butter.|
|Onion||Onions contain a toxic compound that attacks a dog’s red blood cells so never feed them to your dog. If your dog has eaten them, contact your veterinarian straight away for advice.|
|Raw fish||Raw fish can contain many parasites and bones that can be harmful to dogs. Cooking fish destroys these parasites.|
|Rhubarb||The leaves and stems of rhubarb can be bad for your dog and cause kidney failure. They should be avoided.|
|Soda||You should not give your dog soda as it contains sugar, caffeine and is high in calories. If he drinks a few drops don’t worry too much but dogs are not meant to consume this kind of drink.|
|Tea||Tea contains caffeine, and caffeine is toxic to dogs (see our explanation of coffee earlier in this chart).|
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